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Year : 2010  |  Volume : 25  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 74-77 Table of Contents   

Radiation safety

Date of Web Publication25-Nov-2010

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How to cite this article:
. Radiation safety. Indian J Nucl Med 2010;25:74-7

How to cite this URL:
. Radiation safety. Indian J Nucl Med [serial online] 2010 [cited 2022 Jan 27];25:74-7. Available from:


Comparison of radiation surveillance of different model of Siemens medical cyclotron

Kumar Rajeev, Jacob MJ, Pandit AG

Army Hospital R and R, New Delhi, India

The aim of this study is to compare the radiation surveillance of two models of Siemens medical Cyclotron during production of F-18 FDG in the Medical Cyclotron facility. CTI RDS -111 Eclipse and HP are self shielded cyclotron for production of positron emitting radioisotopes. Basically it is a 11 Mev negative ion cyclotron, it have option to run either single or dual mode. We are using 40μA beam current in RDS 111 cyclotron and 60 μA for HP cyclotron. The bombardment time depends on the patients schedules. A layout of Medical cyclotron facility has been drafted. The radiation measurement has been performed during daily operation using Ludlum survey meter. Personnel monitoring was also performed using canary II pocket dosimeter (digital). The radiation survey in Medical Cyclotron facility Showed that dose levels within the recommended by CTI Siemens. It reveals adequacy of the shielding and excellent design of medical cyclotron facility

Keywords: Radiation surveillance, CTI RDS -111 eclipse cyclotron, CTI HP cyclotron, self shielded, 11 Mev, 40μA, 60 μA


Radiation surveillance in and around cyclotron

Kaur Amandeep, Sarika, Singh B, Mittal BR

Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Centre, PGIMER , Chandigarh-160012, India

The cyclotron is the most widely used particle accelerator for producing medically important radio nuclides. Many medical centers in India have installed compact medical cyclotrons for on-site production of short-lived positron-emitting radio nuclides such as 18F, 13N and 11C. A mandatory requirement for cyclotron installation is radiation control permit from AERB. Cyclotron radiation survey is an integral part of the overall radiation safety in the cyclotron facility. Recently PGIMER, Chandigarh has installed an onsite Cyclotron PET trace4. Radiation Surveillance in and around cyclotron was performed using ionization chamber based detector and Geiger Muller counter before, during and after operating the cyclotron. The readings were recorded at various locations where a high radiation field was expected. The results were recorded, tabulated and analyzed. Highest exposure level (0.93microSv) was found at the back wall of the radiochemistry lab facing the cyclotron vault. All other values were found to be below the recommended levels of exposure

Keywords: Cyclotron, radiation surveillance, area survey


Radiopharmacy contamination in nuclear medicine:

A survey report

Ghai Aanchal, Sarika, Singh B, Mittal BR

Department of Nuclear Medicine, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India

Aim: The aim of the study was to measure and compare the level of loose contamination in different areas of radiopharmacy at different time intervals i.e morning and evening using wipe test. Materials and Methods: Wipe testing was done in the radiopharmacy room of the Deptt of Nuclear Medicine, at PGIMER, Chandigarh. Readings were taken twice a day i.e in morning and in evening at 7 different locations-fumehood, injection bed, L-bench 1, L-bench 2, sink, centre of lab, background for 30 days. Cotton swabs or wipes dipped in alcohol were held with gloved thumb and forefinger and rubbed over the surface of tiles from periphery to centre covering area of 936.36 cm 2 /tile. These wipes were then kept in test tubes and were counted in a calibrated well counter. Results: The average values of the loose contamination in the areas-fumehood, injection bed, L-bench1, L-bench2, sink, centre of lab and the background are 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 1(Bq/cm 2 ) in the morning and 24, 18, 23, 18, 33, 15, 15(Bq/cm 2 ) in the evening respectively. Injection bed, sink and area outside the door of radiopharmacy showed high contamination levels as compared to the recommended levels.The reason could be the spillage due to the breach of the radiation safety procedures. Conclusion: Thus this technique was standardized and now put to routine Nuclear Medicine radiation surveillance program. So wipe test is an important technique of finding the level of contamination in the radiopharmacy lab in areas of high radiation background levels.

Keywords: Wipe test, radiopharmacy, contamination


Local transport of F-18 FDG: Guidelines and practical aspects

Sharma Neeraj

Spiral CT-MRI Center, Sector 44-C, Chandigarh

Transport of radioactive material in India is governed by Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) safety code AERB/SC/TR-1 which is based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material. The basic requirement for the transport of radioactive material is that the package containing the material shall be designed and prepared in such a way that during the whole process of transport, the radioactive material remains contained to prevent contamination and remains shielded to avoid unacceptable radiation exposure to cargo handlers and public. The Types of packages used for the transport of radioactive materials are Excepted, Industrial, Type A, Type B(U) and Type B(M) packages. Type A packages are used for the transport of dispersible radioactive material of moderate activity such as nuclear medicine sources used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Transport of F-18 FDG comes under this category. The use of PET-CT in India has grown rapidly over the last few years. Currently, in India, there are around 60 PET-CTs and 15 cyclotrons. Most of these PET-CT facilities are supplied with FDG from off-site cyclotrons. The prime responsibility for ensuring safe transport of F-18 FDG lies with the consignor. The consignor needs to ensure that the appropriate packaging is selected for the transport of F-18 FDG and the package is prepared, marked and labeled as per the regulations. A material such as Tungsten or lead of appropriate thickness and design is used in packaging. Once the package is prepared as per the prescribed procedures, it can be transported by any mode of transport i.e. by road, rail, sea or air. Transport documents are very important during transport; they include (1) declaration by the consignor, (2) instructions to the carrier, (3) a Transport Emergency Card (TREMCARD) and (4) Instructions in writing to the carrier for emergency measures. In addition to this, one working radiation survey meter, emergency kit, mobile phone should always be carried along in a suitable vehicle in case of local transport. Labeling of the package with radioactive symbol on the opposite faces with United Nations number (UN number for Type 'A' package non special form is 2915) along with the proper address of the consignor and consignee on the top of the package is also essential. Labeling should include the name of the radionuclide, activity and the transport index. The consignor, consignee and the carrier should contact the competent authority immediately in the event of any untoward incident/accident during transport or non delivery of the package at the destination within the normal period. Take home message is that the transport of PET radiopharmaceuticals is a collective teamwork involving scientific knowledge, time and work management.

Keywords: F-18 FDG, radioactive transport, type a package, AERB, tremcard

0RAD 05 (ORAL)

Emergency situation in a medical cyclotron facility

Kumar Rajeev, Bhat MK, Singh DK, Pthania BS, Pandit AG, Jacob MJ

Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET, Army hospital R and R, New Delhi, India

Medical cyclotron is a particle accelerator used in producing short lived radioisotopes such as 18F, 11C, 15O, 13N, 18F -2 gas etc. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a nuclear imaging modality that has rapidly gained favour. 18F-FDG is the most widely used radiopharmaceutical with a half-life of 109.8 min. Having more than five years experience in this field we face lots of emergency conditions in the medical cyclotron facility. On the basis of harm we have divided in to three categories ie Harm of a) working personnel, b) Equipment and c) environment Radioactive gas leak and Target foil rupture is considered as the major emergency situations during medical cyclotron operations because there is a potential of over exposure to the working personnel. Radiation protection survey of a self-shielded medical cyclotron installation was carried out during normal and emergency conditions. It is found that the induced activity in the target foil increases with its successive usages. Recommendations have also been made to reduce personal exposure while handling the radioactive gas leak and target foil rupture conditions.

Keywords: Radiation survey, medical cyclotron, emergency


Radiation monitoring in a medical cyclotron facility during the production of 18F labelled FDOPA

Kaushik Aruna, Senthil VR, Singh L, Swatantra, Ramgopal Meena, Raunak, Panwar P, Mishra AK

Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Brig. S.K. Mazumdar Marg, Timarpur, Delhi - 110 054, India

The Medical Cyclotron Facility at INMAS GE PETtrace is an integrated PET tracer production system, which includes a negative-ion cyclotron, a standard chemistry system and a control system. The system is used for the routine production and synthesis of 18F labelled radiotracers (e.g. fluoride, FDG) and other research PET radiotracers (e.g. FDOPA, FLT, FMISO, 11C-labeled methionine). The medical cyclotron is an unshielded type that is housed in a concrete bunker. The total extracted beam current on the target is at least 80 μA for protons and at least 60 μA for deuterons. The synthesis of 18F-labeled 6-[18F]fluoro-L-DOPA starting from [18F ]F2 is based on an electrophilic fluorination reaction. The [18F] fluorine is produced via the 20Ne (d, α) 18F nuclear reaction on target number six of the system. The [18F] labelled Fluoro-DOPA is produced from this [18F]F2 activity in a compact automated radiochemistry system GE TRACERlab FXFDOPA. The radiation levels in the medical cyclotron and radiochemistry facility were measured using Rotem's MediSmarts comprehensive radiation monitoring system. The system provides on line production monitoring, stack monitoring and area monitoring. During production and synthesis of 18F labelled FDOPA, the radiation levels were measured in the cyclotron vault, radiochemistry room, beam extension, stack and the control console. Before irradiation, the gamma radiation level in the cyclotron vault ranged from 60 μSv/h to 200 μSv/h at 1 m from the cyclotron. During irradiation, the gamma radiation level inside the cyclotron vault was more than 100 mSv/h at 1 m from the detector and the neutron radiation level ranged from 84 mSv/h to 131 mSv/h. The radiation levels in the radiation chemistry laboratory were on the order of 0.1 to 0.4 μSv/h during the synthesis. The gamma radiation level inside the beam extension ranged from 1 - 6 μSv/h and neutron radiation level ranged from 9 μSv/h to 18.2 mR/h. The gamma radiation levels on the console were measured to be in the range 0.1 - 0.4 μSv/h when the beam was ON and the levels did not exceed 0.1 μSv/h when the beam was OFF. There was no neutron radiation level on the control console.

Keywords: Medical cyclotron, PET, FDOPA


Radiation monitoring of 18F-FDG patient in PET/CT centre

Chopra S, Sarika, Singh B, Mittal BR

Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Centre, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India

Introduction: In PET studies positron emitters are used as radiotracers. 18F (half life 109.7 minutes and gamma ray energy 511 keV) is one of the positron emitter which is used in form of 18F-FDG in glucose metabolism studies. Dose of 18F-FDG for whole body procedure is in the range of 10-15 mCi. PET scan is acquired after 45-60 minutes of dose administration. The acquisition time is about 20-30 minutes. After the scan is complete the patient is not sent immediately but has to stay in PET/CT centre for about 1 hour such that the exposure level from patient is reduced. Due to high dose, high radiation energy of 18F, and prolonged stay of patient in PET/CT centre, radiation dose exposure increases. So radiation monitoring of18F patient becomes important to access the rate of exposure. Aims and Objectives: 1) To monitor radiation levels of 18F-FDG patient in PET/CT centre. 2) To ensure that patient leaves the department when the radiation level is minimal. 3) To avoid exposure to public at large. Materials and Methods: This study included 31 patients (male: female: 17:14, mean age 52 years and range 21-77 years, mean weight 59.9kg and range 42.5-101 kg and mean height 157cm and range 149-185 cm resp). The mean injected dose of 18F-FDG was 11.77mCi and range was 7.902-14.814mCi. Survey meter based on ionization chamber was used to measure exposure rate from 18F-FDG patient. The exposure rate was measured again as a function of distance and time. As soon as the dose was administered into the patient, the exposure rate was measured at surface of patient, 50 cm and 100 cm away from the patient. Next set of readings was taken just before the PET scan of patient. The time interval between two sets of observation was 1 hour. The third set of readings was taken after 2 hours of dose administration. The data was tabulated and statistically analysed. Results: Mean exposure rates at 0, 1 and 2 hrs post injection time for 31 patients at surface are 101±36 mR/h, 36.31±11.699 and 3.7±1.01 mR/h. Mean exposure rates at 0, 1 and 2 hrs post injection time at 50 cm were 23.26±6, 6.03±1.316 and 2.655±0.60 mR/h while the readings at 100 cm were 12.20±2.89, 4.93±0.80 1.67±0.50 Coefficient of regression (r2) was calculated for each set of data. Conclusion: The exposure rate at surface is very high for the mean injected dose of 18F-FDG therefore the person administering the dose to patient should avoid standing very close to the patient. After 2 hours patient was allowed to leave the department. At that time the mean exposure rate from patient at 1m was 1.67mR/hr. This is within permissible limits. Also the half life of 18F is very less i.e. 109.7 minutes; therefore, exposure rate falls rapidly with the passage of time. So the exposure to general public is very low.

Keywords: Radiation exposure, FDG, Patient, Public


Standard operating and safety protocols and guidelines for packing and transport of radiopharmaceuticals

Vairalkar Kashinath, Rawool SN, Kamble Niwas, Choudhary DN, Mathakar GJ, Waghmare MG, Prabhakar G and Sachdev SS

Radiopharmaceuticals Programme, Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology, Mumbai, India

Radiopharmaceutical Program of BRIT is involved in the manufacturing of ready to use in-vivo radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and therapy for the last three decades. Radiopharmaceuticals include, 131I-Sodium iodide formulations both solution and solid dosage form (gelatin capsules) for diagnosis and therapy thyroid disorders, 131I-MIBG injection for diagnosis and therapy of adrenal medullae tumors and their mets., 153Sm-EDTMP and 32P-Sodium orthophosphate injection for palliative treatment, 51Cr-Sodiumchromate injection for RBC labeling and 99Mo-Sodium molybdate for 99mTc solvent extraction. BRIT's RPh. Program facility is a state of art radioisotope laboratory classified as Type-III facility for handling radioisotopes of Group-II, Group-III and Group-IV approved by erstwhile RPAD, BARC (presently known as AERB). This facility meets all the radiological safety requirements as per AERB guidelines. Our facility has a multi room complex with clear demarcation of radioactive and non radioactive zones. All rooms with floors, walls and working surfaces-smooth and easy to clean and decontaminate. All radioactive laboratory areas is provided with excellent light, and ventilation at rate of not less than 10 air changes per hour once through (to prevent recirculation of exhausted air), with air conditioning for comfortable working. Processing, formulation and dispensing of in-vivo Radiopharmaceutical Products is carried out in Production Plants (PP), β, γ- Glove boxes (GB) and Fume hoods (FH) under strictly adherence to the standard operation protocols based on the ALARA principle in compliance to GMP Codes. Final product consignments are packed, following the Standard Operating Protocol of packaging and dispatched to the Nuclear medicine Centers as per the IAEA guidelines and AERB regulations for shipment of radioactive consignments. At our facility, all the ready to use in-vivo radiopharmaceuticals consignments are packed in approved Type-A containers. The primary design criteria of our type A containers is based on the following, (i) Optimum size and easy to handle by the personnel, so we designed truncated cone shape with no sharp edge. (ii) To minimize the freight cost, the total weight of the container is minimum. (iii) most important, it should meet and comply with all the tests for a type A approved package. Containers made from High Density Polyethylene (HDPE), along with the suitable thermocole mould insert. Thermocole mould of requisite density, are designed in such way, that different sizes of lead pots (secondary container) are easily accommodated. We use four different categories of thermocole mould for our packaging, for the two sizes of HDPE containers (small and big size). These containers comply with the mandatory tests for qualifying for "Type-A package", namely water spray test, free fall drop test, compression test and penetration test, as per the AERB and IAEA stipulated guidelines. SOP of packaging is carried under strict adherence to personal safety and radiation safety protocols based on the ALARA principle. Also the facility has adequate shielding provision for safe storage of unpacked and packed product consignments. Daily radiation field checks are carried by Health Physicist and displayed on the placards with date and time (μSv/hr). Area monitors for continuous monitoring during the transfer and final packing are also installed. Salient features of SOP of Type -A package are: a) Collect the "technical data sheet" room the production group along with the consignee address label, b) write down the following health physicist detail tag, transport index tag labelsand keep ready the plastic container with the labels. c) Check and ensure the availability of product consignment (Lead pot) on the trolley placed in the lead shielded chamber. d) Consignment lead pot is transferred in to the already prepared plastic container behind a lead shielding and hermitically sealed with a lid after keeping the copy of technical data sheet. the Product history sheet. e) Press seal cap the plastic container with appropriate lid f) Monitor the surface dose, record the same on HP tag and also on one copy of technical data sheet. g) Ensure the surface dose for any container not exceeding 200 mR per hour. h) Load the containers in to the respective dispatch vehicles i) Send the radiation safety and invoice documents to the appropriate authorities and keep records Yearly around 10,000 consignments of radiopharmaceuticals are being safely packed and dispatched to users all over India and abroad.

Keywords: Radiopharmaceutical, packing, transport, approved package, type A


Radiological safety and GMP in the bulk batch manufacturing, formulation and dispensing of radiopharmaceuticals

Thulasidhasan A, Tiwary Bikash, Kumar Uma Sheri, Kale Pooja, Tiwary Richa, Gaurav Ananad, Shah BK, Topale PD, Prabhakar G and Sachdev SS

Radiopharmaceuticals Programme, Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology, Mumbai, India

Radiopharmaceutical Program of BRIT is involved in the manufacturing of ready to use radiopharmaceuticals for therapy for the last three decades. Ready to use Radiopharmaceuticl products include, 131I-Sodium iodide solution and capsules for thyroid carcinoma and metastatic lesions, I-131 MIBG injection for diagnosis and therapy of adrenal medullae tumors and their mets, 153Sm-EDTMP injection and 32P- Sodium orthophosphate injection for bone pain palliative treatment. BRIT's radiopharmaceutical production facility is a radioisotope laboratory classified as Type-III facility for handling radioisotopes of Group-II, Group-III and Group-IV approved by AERB. This facility meets all the radiological safety requirements as per AERB guidelines. Production of above mentioned radiopharmaceuticals is carried out in Production Plants (PP), β, γ Glove boxes (GB) and Fume hoods (FH). Typical production procedure involves bulk processing, formulation, sterilization and dispensing of doses. Production Plants (PP) are exclusively designed facilities to carry out the production in a radiologically safe manner. at the same time maintaining aseptic conditions required for injectables as per the current GMP. Each production plant has a leak tight Isolator box, made up of high quality SS which has provisions for remote handling devices like, Tongs, dispensing systems, service points for vacuum, gas, compressed air, water and electric power. This Isolator box is shielded from all sides by required amount of lead (2" or 4"), and has an access port called "Transport Port Box" with double door transport lock and is equipped with a trolley. Two filter unit systems are fitted at the top of the plant and each unit comprises of activated Charcoal filter and HEPA filter in tandem, this in turn is connected to special exhaust meant for radioactive gases. Similarly, the designs of β, γ Glove boxes (GB) and Fume hoods (FH) also incorporate all radiological safety features to ensure safety to the occupational workers and to the environment. Radiological safety both at personnel and environmental level is ensured at BRIT facility, by strictly adhering to the following standard operation protocols based on the ALARA principle. (i) Before starting the production, the facility (Production Plant/ Glove Box/ Fume hood), "Safety protocol document" is prepared, checked and certified by Health Physicist and all safetydocuments and records are completed. This is to ensure proper negative pressure, air flow, integrity of the Neoprene gloves, Radiation field check and facility equipment to be used, namely, trolley, dry heat bath, pumps, pantographs, dispensing equipment, vacuum lines etc. are working properly. For assuring pharmaceutical quality all good manufacturing practice (GMP) guidelines are followed. All raw materials, carriers, buffers and glassware used are sterile and pyrogen free. The facility meant for processing is made to comply with the environmental control test. This is ensured by spraying and mopping the facility with ethyl alcohol, exposing the area with UV lights and testing the suitability with agar media plate test. For injectable products namely I-131 MIBG injection, 153Sm-EDTMP injection and 32P- Sodium orthophosphate injection, GMP compliance requirements are stringent. (ii) Salient steps of production SOP include, transfer of bulk raw material radioisotope, required reagents, chemicals and sterile glassware, in the production plant,. The product is formulated, sterilized and dispensed in required doses. This is with strict adherence to the Radiopharmaceuticals Committee (RPC) approved production manuals. (iii) All the products are then sampled and tested according to Radiopharmaceuticals Committee (RPC) approved production monographs by Radiopharmaceutical Quality Control Program of BRIT. Continuous monitoring is an essential part of any radiation safety program and radiation surveillance, is provided to all radioactive labs of the RPL facility on timely basis and on real time basis where ever required. Daily radiation field checks carried on all the Production Plants, Fume Hoods and Glove boxes displayed on the placards with date and time (μSv/hr). Air monitoring is done continuously and also in exhaustively at the beginning and at the end of working hours. Air samples from all work places are collected and counted in GM counter and recorded. Also air sample from the exhaust filter house of the RPh Program facility, is checked on daily basis and exhaust air released (through the stack to environment) is monitored and recorded. Contamination monitoring of all areas (swipes) on daily basis. For personnel, TLD badges are provided to all Occupational Workers (OW) and DRD during any production processes/ formulations for bulk batch processes. Dose monitoring by whole body counting, Thyroid and bio assay for all Occupational workers is being done as per regulations

Keywords: Radioharmaceutical production, I-131, P-32, MIBG, radiation safety


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