Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 35  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 283-290

Diagnostic accuracy of prebiopsy Ga-68 PSMA PET/CT in detecting primary prostate carcinomas with prostate-specific antigen <50 ng/ml

1 Department of Nuclear Medicine, MIOT International Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Urology, MIOT International Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Piyush Chandra
Department of Nuclear Medicine, MIOT International Hospital, Manapakkam, Chennai - 600 056, Tamil Nadu
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijnm.IJNM_81_20

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Background and Aim: Serum prostate-specific-antigen (PSA) guided systematic transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsies are known to have a low predictive value in detection of primary prostate carcinomas (PCa). Our aim was to evaluate the accuracy of gallium-68 (Ga-68) prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PSMA PET/CT) for the detection of PCa with serum PSA <50 ng/ml. Patients and Methods: We retrospective analyzed prebiopsy Ga-68 PSMA PET/CT's of all patients with suspected PCa from October 2019 to March 2020. Several quantitative clinical and PET/CT variables were compared in benign and malignant groups and assessed for significance using an independent t-test. Diagnostic performance of PSMA PET/CT for detection of cancer was evaluated and compared with the diagnostic performance of cancer risk predicting calculator (European Randomized Study for Screening of Prostate Cancer [ERSPC3]). The standard of reference was 12-core TRUS-guided biopsies. Results: Sixty-four patients were included with mean age 70 years (range 48–94 years); mean PSA 15.67 ng/ml (range 1.74–44), mean PSA density 0.32 ng/ml2 (range 0.01–0.99) and mean prostate volume 54.55 cc (range 16.5–182). 64% (n = 41/64) patients had benign histology and 36% (n = 23/64) had carcinoma. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy of PSMA PET/CT for detecting PCa reported using the prostate cancer molecular imaging standardized evaluation (PROMISE) was 74%, 92%, 85%, 86%, and 86%, respectively. Mean prostate maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was significantly higher in PCa versus Benign lesions (19.56 ± 18.11 vs. 4.21 ± 1.5, P = 0.00001), in patients with PSA >20 ng/ml versus PSA <20 ng/ml (19.1 ± 20.6 vs. 6.01 ± 5.4, P-0.0052), and in patients with Gleason's score (GS) score >7 versus GS ≤7 (28.1 ± 20.3 vs. 10.2 ± 8.9, P-0.010). SUVmax cutoff value of 5.6 on PSMA PET/CT showed a sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 90.9% (area under the curve 0.990, P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Ga-68 PSMA PET/CT can differentiate benign and malignant lesions of the prostate with very high accuracy and when used alongside with ERSPC3 calculator and magnetic resonance imaging, could potentially reduce painful and often unnecessary prostate biopsies.

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