|Year : 2023 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 74-75
Extensive metastatic vascular calcification in a patient with chronic renal failure and tubercular osteomyelitis as seen on F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography
Sneha Prakash1, Nishikant Avinash Damle1, Prayas Sethi2, Manisha Jana3
1 Department of Nuclear Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Internal Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
3 Department of Radiodiagnosis, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
|Date of Submission||28-Jul-2022|
|Date of Acceptance||08-Sep-2022|
|Date of Web Publication||24-Feb-2023|
Nishikant Avinash Damle
Department of Nuclear Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi - 110 029
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
A 48-year-old male with known tubercular osteomyelitis of the left elbow and chronic renal failure presented with PTH independent hypercalcemia and underwent F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) to look for any underlying malignancy that might be causing his hypercalcemia. The PET/CT did not reveal any malignancy, but extensive metastatic calcification of small- and medium-sized arteries was noted throughout the body with relative sparing of large vessels. Alkaline tissue such as lungs, gastric mucosa, and kidneys that are usually involved in metastatic calcification were also spared. The underlying pathology for this kind of metastatic calcification was most likely chronic granulomatous disease, which was tubercular osteomyelitis in this patient. We present the PET/CT scan images of this unusual case of metastatic vascular calcification.
Keywords: Chronic renal failure, F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography, metastatic calcification, TB osteomyelitis, vascular calcification
|How to cite this article:|
Prakash S, Damle NA, Sethi P, Jana M. Extensive metastatic vascular calcification in a patient with chronic renal failure and tubercular osteomyelitis as seen on F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography. Indian J Nucl Med 2023;38:74-5
|How to cite this URL:|
Prakash S, Damle NA, Sethi P, Jana M. Extensive metastatic vascular calcification in a patient with chronic renal failure and tubercular osteomyelitis as seen on F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography. Indian J Nucl Med [serial online] 2023 [cited 2023 Mar 28];38:74-5. Available from: https://www.ijnm.in/text.asp?2023/38/1/74/370423
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
|Figure 1: Metastatic calcification can be associated with diseases such as hyperparathyroidism, Vitamin D intoxication, milk-alkali syndrome, chronic granulomatous diseases, neoplasms, and other conditions that lead to the derangement in calcium metabolism and deposition of calcium and phosphorous salts in otherwise normal tissues. Here, we present the images of an F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan done in a 48-year-old male with known tubercular osteomyelitis affecting the elbow with PTH-independent hypercalcemia to look for any malignancy. The patient was also suffering from chronic renal failure but had normal parathormone (PTH) levels of 11.5 ng/ml. The scan revealed multiple metabolically active lymph nodes involving cervical, axillary, mediastinal, retroperitoneal, and pelvic regions with calcification and necrosis suggestive of tubercular pathology. The patient was a known case of tubercular osteomyelitis, and metabolically active disease was noted involving his left elbow joint. The PET/CT did not reveal any definite evidence of malignancy, but incidentally, diffuse metastatic calcifications were noted extensively in small- and medium-sized arteries throughout the body. [Figure 1]a and [Figure 1]b show metastatic calcification involving the medium and small arteries of the abdominal viscera (hepatic artery, celiac trunk, and splenic artery pointed by black arrows) and renal arteries on CT and PET/CT, respectively. [Figure 1]c and [Figure 1]d show metastatic calcification of bilateral femoral arteries (white arrowhead) and multiple branches of the internal iliac arteries supplying the pelvis and perineum on CT and PET/CT, respectively. Noncontrast computed tomography maximum intensity projection images showed metastatic calcification of small- and medium-sized vessels of the abdomen [Figure 1e] and upper and lower limbs [Figure 1]f. FDG-avid coarse calcifications were seen in the shoulder and hip joints as well as the gluteal region. [Figure 1]c and [Figure 1]d show soft tissue (muscle as well as subcutaneous soft tissue) calcification in the bilateral gluteal regions (solid white arrows) on CT [Figure 1c], showing increased FDG uptake on PET/CT [Figure 1d]. Furthermore, both kidneys appeared small and contracted (left > right) [stars in [Figure 1]a and [Figure 1]b. The patient's chronic kidney disease could have been a differential for the cause of the extensive vascular metastatic calcification, but normal PTH levels indicated otherwise. Moreover, relative sparing of the large arteries, which are usually involved in metastatic calcification due to chronic kidney disease was noted. This was suggestive of a different pathogenesis for metastatic calcification secondary to chronic kidney disease, such as a lack of inhibitors of vascular calcification or a different cause altogether, such as tubercular osteomyelitis. In chronic granulomatous diseases such as sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, and granulomatous infections, unregulated conversion of 25 (OH) Vitamin D into 1,25 (OH) 2 Vitamin D (calcitriol) leads to hypercalcemia and therefore, metastatic calcification. Another unusual finding in this patient was the absence of calcification in alkaline tissues such as lungs, kidneys, gastric mucosa, and basal ganglia (Figure) where metastatic calcification is commonly seen. Metastatic calcification can be detected using a CT scan or Technetium-99 m labeled bone scintigraphy., Appropriate differentials for soft-tissue calcifications can be approached by the distribution patterns, additional laboratory testing and clinical findings.|
Click here to view
| References|| |
Black AS, Kanat IO. A review of soft tissue calcifications. J Foot Surg 1985;24:243-50.
Kerr DN. Hypercalcemia and metastatic calcification. Cardiovasc Res 1997;36:293-7.
Moe SM, Chen NX. Mechanisms of vascular calcification in chronic kidney disease. J Am Soc Nephrol 2008;19:213-6.
Yamagami K, Nakamura T, Kishida M, Hanioka Y, Nakamura T, Yamaguchi T, et al.
Pulmonary and gastric metastatic calcification due to milk-alkali syndrome: A case report. CEN Case Rep 2013;2:209-14.
Labidi J, Ariba YB, Gabsia AB, Ajili F, Battikh R, Louzir B, et al.
Severe metastatic calcifications in a hemodialysis patient. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2016;27:1037-42.
] [Full text]
Richards AG. Letter: Radionuclide detection of metastatic calcification. JAMA 1975;231:1339.