Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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Inclusion of radiopharmaceuticals in the Indian pharmacopeia: A step forward
Bikash Ranjan Meher
January-March 2020, 35(1):1-3
DOI:10.4103/ijnm.IJNM_133_19  PMID:31949360
Pharmacopeia is the national collection of quality standards of pharmaceutical products. It is an important instrument for drug safety. The inclusion of radiopharmaceuticals (RPs) in the Indian Pharmacopeia is a step-in right direction as the adaptation of provision of pharmacopeia will reduce the unwanted adverse effects and ensure the effectiveness of RPs.
  79,625 348 1
Regulatory requirements for designing PET-CT facility in India
Pankaj Tandon
April-June 2010, 25(2):39-43
DOI:10.4103/0972-3919.72684  PMID:21188061
  18,538 1,373 3
Radiation Safety in Nuclear Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy
Pankaj Tandon
October-December 2007, 22(4):122-122
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Radiological and radionuclide imaging of degenerative disease of the facet joints
Natalie Shur, Alexis Corrigan, Kanhaiyalal Agrawal, Amidevi Desai, Gopinath Gnanasegaran
July-September 2015, 30(3):191-198
DOI:10.4103/0972-3919.158526  PMID:26170560
The facet joint has been increasingly implicated as a potential source of lower back pain. Diagnosis can be challenging as there is not a direct correlation between facet joint disease and clinical or radiological features. The purpose of this article is to review the diagnosis, treatment, and current imaging modality options in the context of degenerative facet joint disease. We describe each modality in turn with a pictorial review using current evidence. Newer hybrid imaging techniques such as single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) provide additional information relative to the historic gold standard magnetic resonance imaging. The diagnostic benefits of SPECT/CT include precise localization and characterization of spinal lesions and improved diagnosis for lower back pain. It may have a role in selecting patients for local therapeutic injections, as well as guiding their location with increased precision.
  13,150 547 2
Metastatic mimics on bone scan: “All that glitters is not metastatic”
Archi Agrawal, Nilendu Purandare, Sneha Shah, Venkatesh Rangarajan
July-September 2016, 31(3):185-190
DOI:10.4103/0972-3919.183605  PMID:27385887
In this pictorial review, cases where benign diseases caused a diagnostic dilemma on bone scan are illustrated. This review highlights the value of correlative imaging- single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (CT), CT, and magnetic resonance imaging in solving the diagnostic problem by exact localization and characterization of the lesions. All these eventually lead to increased diagnostic confidence, better and more accurate reporting and avoidance of delay in initiation of treatment due to equivocal results. The imaging features of these benign pathologies – which are “mimics of metastatic disease,” are elaborated so that the reader can incorporate them while reporting so as to avoid mis-interpretations.
  12,677 772 4
Tc-99m macro aggregated albumin scintigraphy - indications other than pulmonary embolism: A pictorial essay
Sunny J Gandhi, Sanjay Babu, Padma Subramanyam, Palaniswamy Shanmuga Sundaram
July-September 2013, 28(3):152-162
DOI:10.4103/0972-3919.119546  PMID:24250023
Introduction: Tc-99m macro aggregated albumin (MAA) is synonymous for lung perfusion scintigraphy and is part of the study in the evaluation of pulmonary thromboembolism. We wanted to highlight the utilities of Tc-99m MAA other than pulmonary embolism as a pictorial assay. Materials and Methods: Patients referred for Tc-99m MAA scintigraphy under various indications were included in this pictorial essay. Commercially available TechneScan LyoMAA cold kit from Mallinckrodt Medical B.V., Holland was used. Acquisition protocols for different indications are described in this article. Different clinical indications (e.g., pulmonary artery stenosis, hepatopulmonary syndrome, FEV1 calculation in lung surgery planning, selective internal radiation therapy planning, venography for deep venous thrombosis, left to right cardiac shunts, etc.) where Tc-99m MAA scintigraphy was asked for; how it helped in different clinical scenarios and how it can be used clinically is explained with unique and interesting case examples and images. We also reviewed the literature to look for certain remote indications of MAA imaging for the sake of completion like - (shunt scintigraphy, peritoneopleural communication, etc.) Conclusion: Tc-99m MAA is a very useful radiopharmaceutical, which can be used for many other indications apart from the commonly used indication of lung perfusion scan in pulmonary embolism. It can provide useful clinical information in other indications, which we try to highlight in this article.
  10,841 743 4
Three phase bone scan interpretation based upon vascular endothelial response
Kush Kumar
April-June 2015, 30(2):104-110
DOI:10.4103/0972-3919.152949  PMID:25829726
Objectives: A new method of interpretation of Three Phase Bone Scan (TPBS) scan based upon the normal physiological vascular endothelial related response. Materials and Methods: Fifty cases of TPBS were evaluated. Thirteen were normal. In remaining 37 positive studies, 20 showed localized hyperemic response. All localized hyperemic responses except one with vascular endothelial dysfunction were without infection (95.0%). Infection could be ruled out in absence of generalized massive flow and pool response. All 17 cases with generalized massive hyperemic response had infection, consistent with infection or CRPS/RSD. Micro-bacterial or histological confirmation of infection was obtained in 11 cases. All 11 cases with confirmed infection showed generalized massive hyperemic response (100.0%). Two were CRPS/RSD and 2 cases were of cellulitis (100.0%). Among remaining 2, one refused surgery and other was lost to follow-up. Additionally, 20 published cases in the literature of osteomyelitis were also analyzed. Nineteen cases of bone and joint infection, (osteomyelitis/arthritis/cellulitis) except one with endothelial dysfunction showed generalized massive increased flow and pool response (95.0%). All published cases of osteomyelitis in the literature showed generalized massive hyperemic response (100.0%). Results: The data clearly indicated that 100% of the cases of bone infection (osteomyelitis/arthritis/cellulitis) and cases of CRPS/RSD showed generalized massive flow and pool pattern. Infection could be ruled out in absence of generalized massive flow and pool response. All 100% published cases of osteomyelitis in the literature showed positive vascular endothelial response. Conclusion: By incorporating the concept of vascular endothelial related response causing massive vasodilatation in infection, the interpretation of the TPBS can be more précised as it is based upon the normal physiology. Larger studies are recommended.
  11,171 403 1
PET/CT imaging of neuroendocrine tumors with 68Gallium-labeled somatostatin analogues: An overview and single institutional experience from India
Punit Sharma, Harmandeep Singh, Chandrasekhar Bal, Rakesh Kumar
January-March 2014, 29(1):2-12
DOI:10.4103/0972-3919.125760  PMID:24591775
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are rare neoplasms characterized by overexpression of somatostatin receptors (SSTRs). Functional imaging plays a crucial role in management of NETs. Recently, positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with 68Gallium (68Ga)-labeled somatostatin analogues has shown excellent results for imaging of NETs and better results than conventional SSTR scintigraphy. In this review we have discussed the utility of 68 Ga-labeled somatostatin analogue PET/CT in NETs for various established and potential indications. In addition we have also shared our own experience from a tertiary care center in India.
  9,714 636 13
Role of Tc99m sulfur colloid scintigraphy in differentiating non-cirrhotic portal fibrosis from cirrhosis liver
Dhritiman Chakraborty, Hejjaji Venkataramarao Sunil, Bhagwant Rai Mittal, Anish Bhattacharya, Baljinder Singh, Yogesh Chawla
October-December 2010, 25(4):139-142
DOI:10.4103/0972-3919.78247  PMID:21713221
Background : Two most important causes of portal hypertension are cirrhosis of liver and non-cirrhotic portal fibrosis (NCPF). The purpose of this study was to assess the scintigraphic appearances of Tc99m sulfur colloid liver scan in differentiating liver cirrhosis from NCPF. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis records of 146 patients (91 male and 55 female) with diffuse hepatocellular disease was done for liver size, liver uptake, spleen size, spleen uptake, colloid shift to bone marrow and lungs. Results: Cirrhotic livers showed patchy and lower uptake than NCPF (59% vs. 20%, P-value 0.041). Spleen size was significantly increased in NCPF compared to cirrhosis (100% vs. 67%, P-value 0.0137). Significant colloid shift to bone marrow was noted in cirrhosis (84% vs. 7%, P-value<0.0001). Conclusion: Tc99m sulfur colloid liver scan is a non-invasive procedure having a useful adjunctive role in clinical differentiation of cirrhosis from NCPF.
  9,872 392 1
Nuclear medicine at PGIMER, Chandigarh – Striving for Excellence
Ashwin Singh Parihar, Anish Bhattacharya, Bhagwant Rai Mittal
November 2018, 33(5):19-22
DOI:10.4103/0972-3919.245054  PMID:30533980
  9,444 303 -
Lutetium DOTATATE whole body scans: A novel approach for evaluation of neuroendocrine tumors
Natasha Singh, BA Krishna, Madhusudan Vyas, Meera Venkatesh, Sharmila Banerjee, Tapas Das, KV Vimal Nair, Sudipta
July-September 2011, 26(3):135-138
DOI:10.4103/0972-3919.103994  PMID:23326064
Aim: We undertook a study to evaluate whether Lutetium (Lu) DOTATATE whole body scan is well comparable to Gallium positron emission tomography (PET) / Indium Octreotide, and hence with dosimetric advantage can replace it in the pre-therapy setting. Materials and Methods: We undertook a prospective study of a total of 39 patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumor (age 11-70 years), who underwent Lu-DOTATATE scans within the period August 2009-November 2010. This included 28 males and 11 females. Dose of Lu-DOTATATE injected for diagnostic scanning purpose was 10 mCi i.v. Whole body planar images and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-CT images were obtained at 4, 24 and 48 hours. The Lu-DOTATATE whole body and SPECT-CT images were compared to contrast CT scans in all patients, and Indium Octreotide and Gallium DOTATATE PET images in nine patients, with reference to detection sensitivity of number of lesions. The pre-therapy scans were also used for dosimetric calculations. Fourteen of these 39 patients further went ahead with Lu-DOTATATE therapy. Results: All 39 patients demonstrated Lu-DOTATATE uptake in the disease sites seen on the contrast CT images. The uptake intensity was well comparable to Indium Octreotide and Gallium DOTATATE PET scans of all nine patients, with equally well-defined lesions. The post-therapy Lu-DOTATATE scans of the 14 patients who underwent therapy demonstrated higher intensity uptake pattern in the same disease sites, suggesting favorable therapeutic effect. The scans were useful in determining dosimetric details for therapeutic purpose and adequate exposure rates to suggest good ablative effect. Conclusion: Our preliminary data suggest that Lu-DOTATATE whole body scanning procedure is cost effective and equally sensitive as Gallium DOTATOC/NOC PET scan in pre-therapy setting of neuroendocrine tumors. The additional advantage of dosimetry calculations on this scanning procedure makes it more ideal to tailor therapies with more accuracy.
  8,676 486 5
Nuclear medicine in India: A historical journey
Anshu Rajnish Sharma
November 2018, 33(5):5-10
DOI:10.4103/0972-3919.245053  PMID:30533977
Evidence-based historical accounts of critical events, which shaped nuclear medicine in India today, are presented in this article. There was parallel activity happening in the northern and western region of India in the early 60s. Radiation Medicine Center (RMC) at Mumbai inaugurated in September 1963 by Dr. Bhabha; and Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Delhi dedicated to the nation in February 1964. The isotope division of Bhabha Atomic Research Center endured as the backbone in the supply of indigenously produced medical radioisotopes in research reactors APSARA (1958) and CIRUS (1960). Design and dispatch of economical generators (loaded with low specific activity 99Mo) with indigenously designed solvent extraction (Methyl Ethyl Ketone) technique had led to rapid growth of nuclear medicine facilities in the country. As per recently released list (July 2018) of the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, there are 293 nuclear medicine departments in the country. Of which 14&! #37; are in the government sector, and the remaining 86% are under private ownership. There are currently 233 functioning gamma cameras (Single-photon emission computed tomography [SPECT]/SPECT–computed tomography [CT]) units in India since 1969 when the first gamma camera was commissioned at RMC. The first medical cyclotron (2002) and first positron emission tomography (PET) (2002) and first PET-CT (2004) in Mumbai had triggered revolution of molecular imaging in India. There are 222 PET-CT, 3 PET-magnetic resonance imaging scanners, and 19 cyclotrons operating currently. India has witnessed relatively slower headways in terms of high dose radionuclide therapy facilities. After first indoor facility at RMC in 1964, only 92 radionuclide therapy (isolation) wards have come up with no more than 200 beds for the entire country in the last 54 years. India started Delhi university approved structured postgraduate diploma in nuclear medicine in 1963 at the Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS), first of its kind course in the world at that time. RMC started Mumbai University recognized diploma courses for physicians (Diploma in Radiation Medicine) and technologists (Diploma in Medical Radioisotope Techniques) in 1973. National Board of Examination (Government of India) recognized nuclear medicine as a broad specialty in 1982 and accredited RMC for training for Diplomate of National Board. Doctor of Medicine (MD) started first time in India and Asia at Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute, Lucknow in 1990. Doctorate of Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine commenced at All India Institute of Medical Sciences Delhi in 2015. There are 18 teaching hospitals currently imparting MD/DNB nuclear medicine residency for physicians with annual intake of 50. Eighteen institutions are offering bachelors and masters programs for nuclear medicine technology with an average annual intake of 110–120 students. Society of Nuclear Medicine, India (SNMI) is the oldest and largest professional body with total life membership of 1425 nuclear medicine professionals. SNMI was established in 1967 and hosted the first Annual Conference at RMC, Mumbai in 1968. Since then, SNMI is organizing its Annual Conferences in various parts of the country with the objective of scientific exchange and popularizing the modality amongst clinicians. Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education Research is hosting the 50th Annual Conference of SNMI (SNMICON-18) as mark of golden jubilee celebration.
  8,279 704 2
Spectrum of single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography findings in patients with parathyroid adenomas
Dhritiman Chakraborty, Bhagwant Rai Mittal, Chidambaram Natrajan Balasubramanian Harisankar, Anish Bhattacharya, Sanjay Bhadada
January-March 2011, 26(1):52-55
DOI:10.4103/0972-3919.84618  PMID:21969785
Primary hyperparathyroidism results from excessive parathyroid hormone secretion. Approximately 85% of all cases of primary hyperparathyroidism are caused by a single parathyroid adenoma; 10-15% of the cases are caused by parathyroid hyperplasia. Parathyroid carcinoma accounts for approximately 3-4% of cases of primary disease. Technetium-99m-sestamibi (MIBI), the current scintigraphic procedure of choice for preoperative parathyroid localization, can be performed in various ways. The "single-isotope, double-phase technique" is based on the fact that MIBI washes out more rapidly from the thyroid than from abnormal parathyroid tissue. However, not all parathyroid lesions retain MIBI and not all thyroid tissue washes out quickly, and subtraction imaging is helpful. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) provides information for localizing parathyroid lesions, differentiating thyroid from parathyroid lesions, and detecting and localizing ectopic parathyroid lesions. Addition of CT with SPECT improves the sensitivity. This pictorial assay demonstrates various SPECT/CT patterns observed in parathyroid scintigraphy.
  8,432 254 1
Clinical utility of gallium-68 PSMA PET/CT scan for prostate cancer
Kumaraswamy G Kallur, Prashanth G Ramachandra, Krishnappa Rajkumar, Shivakumar S Swamy, Indiresh Desai, Raghavendra M Rao, Shekhar Gowda Patil, PS Sridhar, Nagaraj Madhusudhan, Raghunath S Krishnappa, Veerendra Bhadrasetty, Hemantha M Kumara, SD Santhosh, Basavalingaiah S Ajaikumar
April-June 2017, 32(2):110-117
DOI:10.4103/0972-3919.202255  PMID:28533638
Background: Prostate cancer is biologically and clinically a heterogeneous disease that makes imaging evaluation challenging. One of the important challenges in this cancer is to detect recurrent disease. Biochemical response using Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) and Imaging using several PET tracers have poor sensitivity and specificity. Therefore, we analyse the role of Ga68-PSMA (Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen) imaging in prostate cancer, which is a new PET tracer. Methods: In this study, we evaluated PET scans of 262 patients with diagnosis of prostate cancer. These patients were scanned using Ga68-PSMA for either staging or response evaluation. Results: 336 PSMA scans were performed. Ga68-PSMA scan resulted in the detection of extra-prostatic disease in 53.2% of cases when done at baseline before commencing any treatment. The sensitivity of Ga68-PSMA at baseline with histopathological diagnosis was 95% with 95% CI ranging from 86% to 98%. The positive predictive value was high at 98% with 95% CI ranging from 91% to 99%. In 26 (10%) patients who had surgical castration, Ga68-PSMA scan was able to detect disease progression / castration resistance in 100% of cases. The outcome of castration-resistant prostate cancer was compared with other cases where castration was not done. In those who did not undergo castration, there was a significantly better response by hormone therapy (p &#61; 0.03) and radiotherapy (p &#61; 0.01) on Ga68-PSMA. The sensitivity of Ga68-PSMA response with biochemical response was 66.7% with 95% CI ranging between 46 %- 82.7%. Ga68-PSMA response did not correlate with biochemical response. Conclusion: Ga68-PSMA has good sensitivity for diagnosis, staging, restaging, evaluation of therapy response and prognostication in prostate cancer.
  7,645 1,023 12
Skeletal scintigraphy manifestations of hematologic disorders
Shrikant V Solav, Ritu Bhandari, Pallavi Solav
January-March 2012, 27(1):59-62
DOI:10.4103/0972-3919.108880  PMID:23599605
Skeletal manifestations are common in hematologic disorders. Benign entities such as Sickle cell disease develop microvascular embolization causing skeletal crisis. Leukemia, acute myeloblastic or lymphoblastic may develop bone marrow infarcts. Compromised immunity makes them susceptible to secondary infection leading to osteomyelitis or septic arthritis. Exposure to steroids may lead to osteonecrosis in these cases. Presented here is an atlas of various scintigraphic skeletal manifestations encountered over the past 10 years, in hematologic disorders.
  8,082 328 2
Spectrum of neurocognitive dysfunction in Indian population on FDG PET/CT imaging
Rajnish Sharma, Madhavi Tripathi, Maria M D'Souza, Abhinav Jaimini, Raunak Varshney, Puja Panwar, Aruna Kaushik, Sanjeev Saw, Romana Seher, Santosh Pandey, Dinesh Singh, Yachna Solanki, Anil K Mishra, Anupam Mondal, RP Tripathi
April-June 2011, 26(2):67-77
DOI:10.4103/0972-3919.90255  PMID:22174510
Background : A variety of neurodegenerative disorders produce significant abnormal brain function which can be detected using fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) scan even when structural changes are not detected on CT or MRI Scan. A study was undertaken at our institute to evaluate the FDG PET/CT findings in Indian population suffering from mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer's disease (AD), fronto-temporal dementia (FTD), dementia with lewy body disease (DLBD) and other miscellaneous causes of dementia. Materials and Methods : 117 0 subjects having neurocognitive deficits and 36 normals were included in our study. All patients underwent a detailed history and clinical examination. This was followed by a mini mental state examination. Subsequently an FDG brain PET scan and an MRI were done. Results :In the patient population included in our study group 36 were normal, 39 had MCI, 40 had AD, 14 had FTD, and 13 had DLBD and 11 dementia due to other miscellaneous causes. MCI patients showed primarily reduced tracer uptake in the mesio-temporal cortex. AD patients showed reduced tracer concentration in temporo-parietal lobes, while patients with advanced diseases showed frontal lobe disease additionally. In subjects of FTD, reduced radiotracer uptake in the fronto-temporal lobes was noted. In addition, FTD patients also showed basal ganglia defects. In contrast the DLBD patients showed globally reduced FDG uptake including severely affecting the occipital cortices. Conclusion :In the current study the F18-FDG PET scans have been shown to be highly useful in the diagnosis of various neurocognitive disorders of the brain. AD was found to be the most common dementia in the Indian population followed by MCI. Diffuse Lewy body disease, FTD and other miscellaneous categories of dementia had a near similar incidence.
  7,773 389 3

November 2018, 33(5):31-113
  7,509 529 -

November 2019, 34(5):23-109
  7,567 451 -
Avoidable challenges of a nuclear medicine facility in a developing nation
Kayode Solomon Adedapo, Yetunde Ajoke Onimode, John Enyi Ejeh, Adewale Oluwaseun Adepoju
October-December 2013, 28(4):195-199
DOI:10.4103/0972-3919.121962  PMID:24379527
The role of nuclear medicine in disease management in a developing nation is as impactful as it is in other regions of the world. However, in the developing world, the practice of nuclear medicine is faced with a myriad of challenges, which can be easily avoided. In this review, we examine the many avoidable challenges to the practice of nuclear medicine in a developing nation. The review is largely based on personal experiences of the authors who are the pioneers and current practitioners of nuclear medicine in a typical developing nation. If the challenges examined in this review are avoided, the practice of nuclear medicine in such a nation will be more effective and practitioners will be more efficient in service delivery. Hence, the huge benefits of nuclear medicine will be made available to patients in such a developing nation.
  7,548 368 8
Unit cost analysis of pet-ct at an apex public sector health care institute in India
SH Gajuryal, A Daga, V Siddharth, CS Bal, S Satpathy
January-March 2017, 32(1):1-6
DOI:10.4103/0972-3919.198438  PMID:28242974
Context: PET/CT scan service is one of the capital intensive and revenue-generating centres of a tertiary care hospital. The cost associated with the provisioning of PET services is dependent upon the unit costs of the resources consumed. Aims: The study aims to determine the cost of providing PET/CT Scan services in a hospital. Methods and Material: This descriptive and observational study was conducted in the Department of Nuclear Medicine at a tertiary apex teaching hospital in New Delhi, India in the year 2014-15. Traditional costing methodology was used for calculating the unit cost of PET/CT scan service. The cost was calculated under two heads that is capital and operating cost. Annualized cost of capital assets was calculated using methodology prescribed by WHO and operating costs was taken on an actual basis. Results: Average number of PET/CT scan performed in a day is 30. The annual cost of providing PET/CT scan services was calculated to be 65,311,719 Indian Rupees (INR) (US$ 1,020,496), while the unit cost of PET scan was calculated to be 9625.92 INR (US$ 150). 3/4th cost was spent on machinery and equipment (75.3%) followed by healthcare personnel (11.37%), electricity (5%), consumables and supplies (4%) engineering maintenance (3.24%), building, furniture and HVAC capital cost (0.76%), and manifold cost (0.05%). Of the total cost, 76% was capital cost while the remaining was operating cost. Conclusions: Total cost for establishing PET/CT scan facility with cyclotron and chemistry module and PET/CT scan without cyclotron and chemistry module was calculated to be INR 610,873,517 (US$9944899) and 226,745,158 (US$3542893), respectively. (US$ 1=INR 64)
  7,368 493 5
Fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in lymphoma: A pictorial essay
Kuruva Manohar, Bhagwant Rai Mittal, Anish Bhattacharya, Pankaj Malhotra, Subhash Varma
April-June 2013, 28(2):85-92
DOI:10.4103/0972-3919.118256  PMID:24163512
F-18 fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) has emerged as a powerful imaging modality in the field of oncology. F-18 FDG PET/CT is now an established tool in the management of lymphoma. This has been shown to be useful in staging, detection of bone marrow involvement (BMI), early response assessment and end of therapy response assessment in lymphoma. Interpretation of F-18 FDG PET/CT in lymphoma is carried out by various qualitative response assessment criteria. London criteria are used for interpretation of interim PET/CT and International Harmonization Project (IHP) criteria are used to interpret PET/CT done after the end of chemotherapy. Quantitative analysis is also found to be useful in assessment of response early after two cycles of chemotherapy in patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). This pictorial essay provides few images describing the FDG avidity of lymphoma, patterns of bone marrow uptake and their relevance in predicting BMI, role of staging PET/CT, quantitative analysis in response assessment, example images of response according to London criteria and IHP criteria. Few pitfalls in imaging of lymphoma with PET/CT are also discussed in the images legend.
  7,555 305 -
A study to improve the image quality in low-dose computed tomography (SPECT) using filtration
SC Kheruka, UC Naithani, AK Maurya, NK Painuly, LM Aggarwal, S Gambhir
January-March 2011, 26(1):14-21
DOI:10.4103/0972-3919.84595  PMID:21969774
Background: The output of the X-ray tube used in computed tomography (CT) provides a spectrum of photon energies. Low-energy photons are preferentially absorbed in tissue; the beam spectrum shifts toward the higher energy end as it passes through more tissue, thereby changing its effective attenuation coefficient and producing a variety of artifacts (beam-hardening effects) in images. Filtering of the beam may be used to remove low-energy photon component. The accuracy of attenuation coefficient calculation by bilinear model depends highly upon accuracy of Hounsfield units. Therefore, we have made an attempt to minimize the beam-hardening effects using additional copper filter in the X-ray beam. The quantitative evaluation were made to see the effect of additional filters on resulting CT images. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on dual-head SPECT (HAWKEYE 4, GE Healthcare) with low-dose CT which acquires images at peak voltages of 120/140 kV and a tube current of 2.5 mA. For the evaluation of image quality, we used CT QA Phantom (PHILIPS) having six different density pins of Water, Polyethylene, Nylon (Aculon), Lexan, Acrylic (Perspex) and Teflon. The axial images were acquired using copper filters of various thicknesses ranging from 1 to 5 mm in steps of 1 mm. The copper filter was designed in such a manner that it fits exactly on the collimator cover of CT X-ray tube. Appropriate fixation of the copper filter was ensured before starting the image acquisition. As our intention was only to see the effect of beam hardening on the attenuation map, no SPECT study was performed. First set of images was acquired without putting any filter into the beam. Then, successively, filters of different thicknesses were placed into the beam and calibration of the CT scanner was performed before acquiring the images. The X-ray tube parameters were kept the same as that of unfiltered X-ray beam. All the acquired image sets were displayed using Xeleris 2 (GE Healthcare) on a high-resolution monitor. Moreover, Jaszak's SPECT Phantom after removing the spheres was used to see the different contrast intensities by inserting the different contrast materials of iodine and bismuth in water as background media. Images were analyzed for visibility, spatial resolution and contrast. Results: Successive improvement in the image quality was noticed when we increased the filter thickness from 1 to 3 mm. The images acquired with 3-mm filter appeared almost with no artifacts and were visibly sharper. Lower energy photons from X-ray beam cause a number of artifacts, especially at bone-tissue interfaces. Additional filtrations removed lower energy photons and improved the image quality. Degradation in the image quality was noticed when we increased the filter thickness further to 4 and 5 mm. This degradation in image quality happened due to reduced photon flux of the resulting X-ray beam, causing high statistical noise. The spatial resolution for image matrix of 512 × 512 was found to be 1.29, 1.07, 0.64 and 0.54 mm for without filter, with 1, 2 and 3 mm filters, respectively. The image quality was further analyzed for signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). It was found to be 1.72, 1.78, 1.98 and 1.99 for open, with 1, 2 and 3 mm filters respectively. This shows that 3-mm filter results in an improvement of 15.7% in SNR. Conclusion: On the basis of this study, we could conclude that use of 3-mm copper filter in the X-ray beam is optimal for removing the artifacts without causing any significant reduction in the photon flux of the resulting X-ray beam. We also propose that as artifacts have been removed from the images, the value of Hounsfield units will be more accurate and hence the value of attenuation coefficients lead to better contrast and visualization of SPECT images.
  7,415 321 2
Differential uptake of Tc-99m DMSA and Tc-99m EC in renal tubular disorders: Report of two cases and review of the literature
Arun Kumar Reddy Gorla, Kanhaiyalal Agrawal, Ashwani Sood, Anish Bhattacharya, Bhagwant Rai Mittal
July-September 2014, 29(3):160-162
DOI:10.4103/0972-3919.136571  PMID:25210282
Tc-99m DMSA and Tc-99m EC studies are invaluable functional imaging modalities for renal structural and functional assessment. Normally, the relative renal function estimated by the two methods correlates well with each other. We here present two patients with renal tubular acidosis who showed impaired/altered DMSA uptake with normal EC renal dynamic study depicting the pitfall of DMSA imaging in tubular disorders. The two presented cases also depict distinct pattern of Tc-99m DMSA scintigraphic findings in patients with proximal and distal renal tubular acidosis, thus highlighting the factors affecting DMSA kinetics.
  7,144 323 -
Usefulness of asymmetry score on quantitative three-phase bone scintigraphy in the evaluation of complex regional pain syndrome
Sampath Sampath, Bhagwant Rai Mittal, Sasikumar Arun, Ashwani Sood, Anish Bhattacharya, Aman Sharma
January-March 2013, 28(1):11-16
DOI:10.4103/0972-3919.116798  PMID:24019668
Introduction: Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is primarily a clinical diagnosis. Diagnostic imaging in CRPS can be used, especially to exclude other disorders. The sensitivity and specificity of three phase bone scintigraphy (TPBS) for the diagnosis of CRPS is variable throughout the literature. Aim : To establish a simple and effective quantitative approach to help in the diagnosis of CRPS by TPBS. Materials and Methods : TPBS done in patients (n = 68) with suspected CRPS was analyzed retrospectively. They were classified into bone scan positive group (BSP), bone scan negative group (BSN) and non-CRPS group based on diffusely increased periarticular uptake, symmetrical uptake, and focal uptake respectively. Asymmetry score (AS) was also measured between the affected and unaffected side. Results: 16 patients showed focal uptake, 37 were in BSP group with mean AS score of 1.57 ± 0.5 and 15 were in BSN group with mean AS score of 1.01 ± 0.05. The mean AS was significantly different (P < 0.0001). AS of 1.06 had sensitivity and specificity of 96.43% and 100% respectively (P = 0.0001). There was a trend of negative correlation between the AS and the duration, r = −0.21; however, it was not statistically significant (P = 0.28). Conclusion: TPBS should be considered in the evaluation of CRPS to rule out patients who have focal involvement, not diagnostic of CRPS (~24% in this study). Quantitative AS of 1.06 can be included to support visual interpretation in the delayed phase.
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Rare developmental abnormalities of thyroid gland, especially multiple ectopia: A review and our experience
Anuj Jain, Sujata Pathak
October-December 2010, 25(4):143-146
Background : Developmental structural abnormalities of the thyroid gland are relatively rare. There are scanty reports of hemiagensis, dual and triple ectopia of the thyroid in the literature Materials and Methods: We did a retrospective analysis of 236 patients referred to us for Tc-99m Pertechnetate thyroid scan over period of four months (May 2010 to Sept 2010). Twenty of these 236 patients aged less than 20 years found to have developmental abnormality of the thyroid gland on thyroid scan. Diagnosis was correlated with anatomical imaging (USG/CT scan), fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and histopathology. Results : Out of the 20 patients, 8 were diagnosed with thyroglossal cyst, 4 with ectopic thyroid gland, 4 with dual ectopia, two had agenesis of thyroid gland, one case each with hemiagenesis and triple ectopia. Conclusion: The study has emphasized the indispensable role of Tc-99m Pertechnetate thyroid scan in the evaluation of midline neck swellings of childhood and diagnosing developmental anomalies of thyroid gland.
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